For doctors

Abomics focuses on pharmacogenetics, which is available for all doctors and patients. In collaboration with clinical laboratories we offer a pharmacogenetic test and interpretation report to support doctors everyday medication decision-making.


Pharmacogenetics is a branch of science studying how genes affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Metabolism of pharmaceuticals occurs through enzymes, and genes regulate the expression of enzymes. Currently over 20 genes with clinically significant effects on drug metabolism have been identified. The most important of these are CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 from the CYP enzyme family, and they are associated with significant genetic variation.

Almost everyone has one or more genetic variants that affect their drug metabolism. In a study of over 1000 patients 99 % had at least one genetic variant that affects medication 1. The prevalence of different genetic variants can vary significantly between populations so that a rare variant in one population can be very common in another. For example, less than half of the Finnish population are considered normal CYP2C19 metabolisers 2, which affects the safety and effectiveness of medicines that are metabolised by CYP2C19. Such are, for example, many antidepressants like escitalopram and amitriptyline, as well as the antithrombotic clopidogrel.

The standard dosing guidelines of medicines are based on drug trials where the majority of patients get the desired therapeutic effect. For slower and faster metabolisers, however, the concentration of the medicine can be above or below the therapeutic window. This can lead to not receiving the therapeutic effect (concentration too low) or an increased risk of adverse drug reactions (concentration too high).

Abomics GeneRx database includes hundreds of medicines

Monetary cost is not a barrier to pharmacogenetic testing anymore 3. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic testing has been studied for various medicines and medical conditions. 3, 4

In a review of studies on the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic testing, 71 % of the studies deemed pharmacogenetic testing cost-effective or cost-saving

This was especially true for clopidogrel (98 %) and antidepressants (82 %). 5 In the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders, pharmacogenetic testing was estimated to save 2000 € per patient during a 6-month follow-up period due to decreased number of ER visits and hospitalisations. Read more below

[1] Ji, Y. et al. (2016) Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing for Precision Medicine: A Comprehensive Analysis of Five Actionable Pharmacogenomic Genes Using Next-Generation DNA Sequencing and a Customized CYP2D6 Genotyping Cascade. The Journal of molecular Diagnostics. 18(3), 438-445., 95(4), 423-432.

[2] Häkkinen, K. et al. (2022). Implementation of CYP2D6 copy-number imputation panel and frequency of key pharmacogenetic variants in Finnish individuals with a psychotic disorder. The Pharmacogenomics Journal. 22(3), 166–172.

[3] GeneRx-tietokanta, Abomics Oy

[4] Lääkealan turvallisuus- ja kehittämiskeskus Fimea & Kansaneläkelaitos. (2022) Suomen lääketilasto 2021. Helsinki.

[5] Morris, S.A., Alsaidi, A.T., Verbyla, A., Cruz, A., Macfarlane, C., Bauer, J. and Patel, J.N. (2022), Cost Effectiveness of Pharmacogenetic Testing for Drugs with Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC) Guidelines: A Systematic Review. Clin Pharmacol Ther.